A study on the reproductive structures and characteristics of liveworts mosses and hornworts

Liverworts Liverworts Hepaticophyta are viewed as the plants most closely related to the ancestor that moved to land. When the sporangium is mature, the operculum breaks off, and the peristome is left holding the spores in place. The first bryophytes liverworts most likely appeared in the Ordovician period, about million years ago.

Liverwort with Sporophytes Differences in Biology The biological differences are a little detailed for the purposes of this blog, so I will only list a few briefly: Thallose — larger rubbery leaves and flower-like capsules containing spores sporophytes.

The thallus is attached to the substrate by smooth rhizoids, which are anchoring structures that are superficially root-like but without the absorptive functions of true roots. Unlike the mosses, the liverworts do not have any specialized tissue for internal water or nutrient conduction in the stem.

The rhizoids in mosses are multicellular, but unicellular in hornworts and liverworts. The next drop of rain that falls into the cup will splash the gemmae out into the environment to either land in a suitable nearby environment, or be carried away in a film of flood water to a new location farther away.

The male organs are known as antheridia singular: Both the central and surface cells of the capsule are sterile, but between them is a layer of cells that will divide to produce pseudo-elaters and spores. Identify the main characteristics of bryophytes Describe the distinguishing traits of liverworts, hornworts, and mosses Chart the development of land adaptations in the bryophytes Describe the events in the bryophyte lifecycle Bryophytes are the group of plants that are the closest extant relative of early terrestrial plants.

Leaves of later plants probably evolved from webbing between the branches.

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They are most easily distinguished from the mosses by their leaf arrangement. All liverworts rhizoids are single-celled, with just a few species having multi-celled rhizoids.

Each protonema can spread over several centimeters, forming a fuzzy green film over its substrate. Cell specialization occurs within the protonema as a result two types of filaments are formed: The gametophyte is made of haploid cells and creates more haploid cells, the gametes, by mitosis.


Many are epiphytes- they grow on other plants but do not harm them. The sporophyte except for the genus Notothylas is constantly growing from a point just above its base intercalary meristem. However, it is NOT actually a moss, or a lichen, but a flowering plant in the bromeliad family. Some float as aquatics.

Inthe oldest fossils assignable at that time to the liverworts were announced, Metzgeriothallus sharonae from the Givetian Middle Devonian of New YorkUnited States. Most plants are monoicous, with both sex organs on the same plant, but some plants even within the same species are dioicous, with separate male and female gametophytes.

Sori are located on the underside of the leaves. After fertilisation, the immature sporophyte within the archegonium develops three distinct regions: Club mosses have true roots, stems, and leaves. The zygote grows into a small sporophyte still attached to the parent gametophyte.

Rhizoids Another feature common to virtually all liverworts is the presence of rhizoids. Gemmae can also be found in mosses.


The setae of liverworts, in contrast to those of mosses, do not elongate until the sporangium is mature and the spores are ready for release. After successful fertilization, a diploid zygote is formed, which then begins to divide by mitosis to form a multicellular, diploid sporophyte.

The bryophyte embryo also remains attached to the parent plant, which protects and nourishes it. Once inside a mucilage cavity the Nostoc multiplies and forms a symbiotic association with the hornwort. The teeth are quite diagnostic features of the species The teeth are so constructed that they bend outward as they dry out.

They reproduce by spores, rather than seeds and their reproductive cycle involves two distinct, external stages, essentially two different plants which does not happen in plants with seeds. It lacks xylem and phloem. Very early in development, periclinal divisions in the apically produced capsule initials separate an inner, endothecial zone from an outer ring of amphithecial cells.

The male and female gametangia may be on the same thallus homothallic or monoecious or on separate gametophytes heterothallic or dioecious.

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Study 80 Bio Final Exam flashcards from Amanda M. on StudyBlue. reproductive structures that attract pollinators and develop into fruit. dependent on water for reproduction. ex: mosses, liveworts, hornworts.

seedless vascular plants. first to evolve vascular tissue to transport: water and inorganic nutrients from roots upwards.

Seedless Plants

The bryophytes are divided into three phyla: the liverworts or Hepaticophyta, the hornworts or Anthocerotophyta, and the mosses or true Bryophyta. Liverworts Some gametophytes form lobate green structures, as seen in Figure 2. Liverworts and hornworts are similar to mosses in that they all require water to reproduce and send spores out to grow into new plants, but the reproductive structures within and how they spread their spores are slightly different.

Club mosses. Horsetails. Whisk ferns. Gymnosperm is seed plants that produce seeds that do not develop with in a fruit and angiosperm are seed plants that produce reproductive structures in flowers and seeds within a fruit. The most common plants that are nonvascular are: mosses,liveworts,hornworts for vascular: ferns,mosses,horsetails.

4. Another difference between mosses and liverworts is with the sporophytes. Probably everyone who has seen a moss plant has also noticed little things that look like a seed pod on a stalk sticking out above the leaves. That thing is a "sporophyte", a part of the life cycle of all mosses and liverworts.

Plant Divisions: Mosses, Liverworts and Hornworts

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A study on the reproductive structures and characteristics of liveworts mosses and hornworts
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